The research team at University of Limerick
Professor Amanda Haynes, Department of Sociology, 威尼斯正版官方网站官方首页, Dr Sindy Joyce, 美国大学社会学系旅行家研究讲师, Olive O’Reilly, Assistant Researcher, Margaret O’Brien, 助理研究员Jennifer Schweppe教授, 威尼斯正版官方网站官方首页’s School of Law Picture: Alan Place
Thursday, June 23, 2022

A groundbreaking new study by researchers at University of Limerick has examined for the first time the relationship between Travellers and the Irish criminal justice system.

The Irish Travellers’ Access to Justice (ITAJ) 威尼斯正版官方网站官方首页研究小组的报告 was officially launched this Thursday morning.

由爱尔兰人权和平等委员会和爱尔兰研究理事会在COALESCE方案下资助, the research documents for the first time Travellers’ perceptions and experiences of the criminal justice process in Ireland – particularly with the judiciary and An Garda Síochána.

The report is the culmination of an 18-month long project that 爱尔兰人权和平等委员会首席专员 Sinead Gibney has said is a ‘landmark study’ in both its conduct and findings.

It is an authoritative analysis and makes evidence based recommendations for measures to address Travellers’ ability to use the tools of the criminal justice system to protect their rights. Among the key barriers to accessing justice is institutional racism towards Travellers found to be prevalent in the criminal justice system.

该报告采用了混合方法,包括调查、访谈和焦点小组. During the course of conducting the research, 威尼斯正版官方网站官方首页的研究人员采访了26个郡中25个爱尔兰旅行者中的1 / 100.

研究结果反映出需要对刑事司法机构的参与方式进行根本性变革, perceive, and address Travellers.

The research finds that Travellers’ trust in the Irish criminal justice system is extremely low and that fears of wrongful arrest, excessive use of force, wrongful conviction, disproportionately high sentences and wrongful imprisonment frame the way Travellers engage with and experience the criminal justice system.

该报告详细记录了吉卜赛人作为嫌疑人对刑事司法机构的看法和经历, victims, and those who are the accused in criminal cases.

Sinead Gibney, 爱尔兰人权和平等委员会首席专员, said: “This report breaks new ground in speaking with a huge diversity of Travellers nationally about their personal experiences with our criminal justice system as victims of crime or as those accused. It is abundantly clear that the relationship between Travellers and our criminal justice system too often starts from a point of mistrust, developed over decades.

“这份报告需要被广泛阅读和分享,并被用作改革的证据基础, 让所有人都能接触到威尼斯网上官方的刑事司法系统.”

Speaking about the research, Professor Amanda Haynes, Department of Sociology, 威尼斯正版官方网站官方首页表示:“能够使用法律程序来保护自己的权利, 首先,你必须足够信任这个系统,才能参与其中. 这份报告显示,旅行者不相信爱尔兰的刑事司法系统会公平对待他们, and that their mistrust in grounded in personal and shared experiences of unsatisfactory and sometimes biased treatment at the hands of criminal justice professionals, as victims and suspects.

“参与这项研究的旅行者发现了警察和法官中的优秀例子, 这些经历被描述为例外,而不是普遍现象.”

Professor Jennifer Schweppe, 威尼斯正版官方网站官方首页’s School of Law, 他说:“威尼斯网上官方的研究表明,作为嫌疑人的“旅行者”同时被过度监管,而作为受害者的监管不足. Our research findings, 哪些反映了欧盟基本权利机构在六个国家的罗姆人和游民的主要发现, 证据表明在整个刑事程序中对吉卜赛人存在重大人权问题.

“在爱尔兰法庭上,游民社区的成员看不到正义得到伸张.”

Dr Sindy Joyce, 美国大学社会学系旅行家研究讲师, 他说:“这项研究的结果对旅行者群体的成员来说并不意外, whose experiences and perceptions of the criminal justice process are unequivocally linked to both their identity as a historically traditionally nomadic community, 以及他们现在在爱尔兰社会中被种族化的土著民族的地位.

“这项研究对旅行者的利益至关重要, 有必要引导刑事司法制度作出有意义的变革.”

Supreme Court Judge, Mr Justice John Mac Menamin; 爱尔兰人权和平等委员会首席专员, Sinead Gibney; Superintendent Michael Corbett of the Garda National Diversity and Integration Unit; and Maria Joyce of the National Traveller Women’s Forum attended the launch of the report this Thursday morning along with 威尼斯正版官方网站官方首页 President Professor Kerstin Mey. 司法部长Helen McEntee TD发表了一份预先录制的声明.

这项研究的顾问是全国游民妇女论坛的代表, The Irish Traveller Movement, Pavee Point, Minceirs Whiden, The Traveller Mediation Service, An Garda Síochána, the Department of Justice, 爱尔兰人权和平等委员会和爱尔兰研究理事会.

Key findings from the research include:

Experiences:

  • Half of the Travellers responding to the ITAJ survey were victims of criminal offences in the five years prior to the survey; only one-fifth had been arrested in that time period;  
  • Half of those surveyed had been present in a home that gardaí entered without permission; when asked about the last case in which that happened, 在这些案件中,只有11%的人向在场的人出示了搜查令;
  • 旅行者报告说听到gardaí和法官公开表达种族主义; 
  • In the context of stop and search, 旅客们讲述了被印度警察骚扰的经历, threats to abuse power, garda provocation, Gardaí故意升级冲突和有辱人格的待遇;
  • 64% of Travellers who were in garda custody in the five years prior to the survey did not feel safe the last time they were in custody; 
  • Travellers described positive experiences with criminal justice professionals as characterised by the professional treating them respectfully - listening to them, being compassionate, 口头上捍卫他们的权利和尊严,并作出回应. However, 与一个来自刑事司法机构的人有过积极的经验, 对于大多数受访者来说,这只是一个例外,而不是常态, 没有改变受访者对整个机构的看法;
  • 当被问及在ITAJ调查之前的五年中,他们上一次被警察拦下是什么时候, 59%的人认为他们被拦下是因为他们是旅行者. 那些认为自己受到种族歧视的人: 
  • 78%的人解释说阻止他们的警察知道他们是旅行者; 
  • 53%的人表示,阻止他们的Garda有阻止旅行者的名声; 
  • 46%的人表示,警察停车的地点有助于他们认定自己具有种族特征;
  • 23% stated that the Garda who stopped them said something about their Traveller identity or about Travellers generally;

Perceptions:

  • The levels of trust that Travellers have in the gardaí is approximately half that of the general population; trust levels in the police are lower again among those who have been victims of crime;
  • 旅行者对法官的信任度明显低于普通民众对法律体系的信任度;
  • 2019年Garda公众态度调查(gpa)衡量了公众对gardaí的态度. 当威尼斯网上官方将平均成绩与ITAJ和traveller的调查结果进行比较时,威尼斯网上官方看到了相反的模式: 
  • 71% of the general population agree that with the statement “the gardaí in this area treat everyone fairly regardless of who they are, while 84% of Travellers disagree; 
  • 95% of the general population agree with the statement that the gardaí would treat you with respect; while 91% of Travellers do not believe that gardaí treat Travellers with respect; 75% of Travellers believe that judges do not treat Travellers with respect;
  • 89% of Travellers believe that the gardaí are more strict in dealing with Travellers compared to settled people; 82% of Travellers believe that judges are more strict in dealing with Travellers compared to settled people.

Key Recommendations 

根据研究结果,该研究提出了广泛的循证建议,包括:

  1. The introduction of an ethnic identifier throughout the criminal process from the point of reporting to the point of sentencing, 包括进入和搜查的家庭和停止和搜查必须记录. 承诺将结果数据提供给独立研究人员. 出版关于少数民族在刑事诉讼中的年度报告.  
  2. The development, publication, 为游民社区的刑事司法战略提供资金和实施, 在刑事诉讼的各个部门内部和内部都有职权来解决信任漏洞, 影响游民群体的合法性和问责制. This strategy should include the development of an independent Traveller justice advisory group to provide advice on justice related issues and to monitor implementation of the strategy.  
  3. The establishment of a robust and effective independent complaints body operating across the criminal legal process and staffed by a dedicated team of investigators with no continuing connection to any of the criminal justice agencies. This body should be able to accept and respond to complaints regarding any criminal justice agency or professional including customs officers and judges.